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    Separation solutions
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Sand Jet Systems

In addition to dissolved components and dispersed hydrocarbons, produced water often contains a mixture of solids. These originate primarily from the reservoir rock but may include sand, clay, mineral scale and, possibly, proppant.

The bulk of the produced solids will accumulate in the primary gravity oil-gas separator vessel, from which they must be removed periodically to avoid reduction of the separator residence time, and reduced separation efficiency. Eventually, the solids can accumulate to considerable depths, and increased carry-over into the downstream processes will be observed. This problem is also associated with slug catchers and free water knock-out drums.

Advantages of Sand Jet systems:

  • Online operation
  • Cost effective
  • Low water requirement.

Application of Sand Jet systems:

  • Mainly horizontal separators (vertical separators also possible).

Case Studies

Demisting Cyclones Flow Assurance

The Zeta-pdm Ltd 4G-FD® Demisting Cyclones are designed to polish the gas prior to compression. The CFD model of these cyclones includes the swirl generation element. It is the modelling of swirl that allows the CFD model to accurately predict the droplet separation characteristics of these cyclones with the client’s process data. The inclusion of swirl raises the benchmark within the industry and renders obsolete the practice maintained by the competition of modelling cyclones as straight flow through a box.

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